动词-ing形式作主语和宾语的三类重要考点

 

考点一:考查介词后接动词时所用形式

【考题实例】One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about ___61___ (be) late for school. (2014课标卷II语法填空题)

【考点分析】本句答案为being。因为空格前的 about 为介词,根据英语语法的要求,当介词后面接一个动词作宾语时,这个动词通常要用-ing形式(即传统语法中的动名词形式)。又如:

I’m very nervous about taking that exam. 参加那个考试我很紧张。

She rested for two weeks after being in the hospital. 出院后,她休息了两周。

Save the document to disk before closing it. 关闭文件前把它保存到磁盘上。

He ran ten kilometres without stopping. 他一路不停跑了10公里。

【特别提醒】表示“除……之外”的介词butexcept是例外,当它后面接动词作宾语时,该动词通常用不定式(不定式是否带to与其前是否有动词do有关:有do则通常不带to,没有do则通常带to)。如:

It had no effect except to make him angry. 除惹他生气外,没产生任何效果。

She had nothing to do except spend money. 她除了花钱更无所事事。

 

考点二:考查习惯上只接动词-ing形式作宾语的用法

【考题实例】Still, the boy kept ___67___ (ride). He was carrying something over his shoulder and shouting. (2014课标卷II语法填空题)

【考点分析】本题答案填 riding。在英语中,当一个动词后面接另一个动词作宾语时,用作宾语的动词有时要用不定式,有时要用动词的-ing形式,而本句中的 keep 则是一个只跟动词-ing形式作宾语的动词。

【相关归纳】习惯上只接动词-ing形式作宾语的动词主要有:acknowledge, admit, advise, allow, anticipate,appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, discuss, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forbid, forgive, give up, imagine, include, involve, keep, mention, mind, miss, pardon, permit, postpone, practice, prevent, prohibit, propose, put off, recall, recollect, recommend, repent, report, resist, risk, save, stop, suggest, understand, witness等。

【温馨提示】动词keep后接动词-ing形式的用法似乎是高考命题特别青睐的一个考题,请再看2014年的一道真题(答案为holding):

Keep ___64___ (hold) your position for a while. It helps develop your strength and flexibility. (2014辽宁卷语法填空题)

 

考点三:考查动词-ing形式与不定式的用法区别

【考题实例】I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver, but he refused ___66___ (stop) until we reached the next stop. (2014课标卷II)

【考点分析】本题答案填 to stop。在高考中动词-ing形式的用法总与不定式的用法有着千丝万缕的联系。正如有些动词后接另一动词作宾语习惯上要用-ing形式一样,还有一些动词则习惯上要接不定式作宾语,本题的 refuse 就是其中之一。高考阅卷的统计数据表明,做题本题的答卷中,90%以上的考生是错填了动词的-ing形式(stopping)。

【相关归纳】习惯上只接不定式作宾语的动词主要有:afford, agree, apply, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, choose, claim, decide, decline, demand, desire, determine, expect, hope, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, resolve, wish等。

【牛刀小试】

Our eating habits are very important for good health and a strong body. There are times (1)________ most of us enjoy (2)________ (eat) sweets and ice-cream, they are not bad for us if we eat them at the end of a meal. If we eat them before a meal, they may take away our appetite. It’s (3)________ (importance) for us to eat our meal at regular time each day. When we feel (4)________ (worry) or excited, we may not want to eat. A long time ago, in England, some judges often decided (5)________ a man was telling the truth by (6)________ (give) him some dry bread. If the man could not swallow the bread, it (7)________ (mean) that he wasn’t telling (8)________ truth. Though this seems strange and (9)________ (fool), they thought it was a good way of finding out truth. A man who is worried about something has difficulty in (10)________ (swallow) anything dry because he loses his appetite.

【参考答案】1. when  2. eating  3. important  4. worried  5. if / whether  6. giving  7. meant  8. the  9. foolish  10. swallowing

 

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