动词-ing形式与不定式作主语和宾语的区别

 

一、动词-ing形式与不定式作主语时的区别

1.表示一般的、泛指的或习惯性的行为通常用动名词;表示具体的、一次性的或将来的动作通常用不定式。如:

Getting up early is a good habit. 早起是个好习惯。

To accept their offer would be foolish. 接受他们的帮助是愚蠢的。

但这种区别有时并不很严格,尤其是当主语和表语同时涉及非谓语形式时,我们通常要从结构的平行性去考虑,采用相同的形式。如:

To see is to believe. =Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。

2.当句子为疑问句时,我们通常动词的-ing形式作主语。如:

Is smoking permissible on this plane? 这架飞机上允许抽烟吗?

Is doing morning exercises good for your health? 做早操对你身体有好处吗?

3.类似下列句式通常用动名词:

Is it any good trying to explain? 试图作些解释有好处没有?

It’s no use shouting at him—he’s deaf. 向他叫喊是没有用的——他耳聋。

Sorry, there is no smoking in the waiting room. 对不起,等候室不许吸烟。

4.类似下列句式通常用不定式:

It took me a month to get rid of the cough. 拖了一个月我的咳嗽才好。

It was clever of you to think of that. 你想到了那一点,真是聪明。

It’s impossible for young children to sit still. 要让幼儿静坐不动是不可能的。

 

二、动词-ing形式与不定式作宾语时的区别

有些动词只习惯上只接不定式作宾语,而有些动词习惯上只接动词的-ing形式宾语。

1.习惯上只接不定式作宾语的动词主要有:afford, agree, apply, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, choose, claim, decide, decline, demand, desire, determine, expect, hope, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, resolve, wish等。如:

Believe it or not, we managed to get there on time. 信不信由你,我们设法准时赶到了。

She pretended to be asleep, but all the while she was watching him. 她假装睡着了,其实整段时间她一直在观察他。

2.习惯上只接动词的-ing形式宾语的动词主要有:acknowledge, admit, advise, allow, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, discuss, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forbid, forgive, give up, imagine, include, involve, keep, mention, mind, miss, pardon, permit, postpone, practice, prevent, prohibit, propose, put off, recall, recollect, recommend, repent, report, resist, risk, save, stop, suggest, understand, witness等。如:

Nobody mentioned going there helping her. 没有人提到要去那儿帮助她。

We only missed seeing each other by five minutes. 我们只因差5分钟而未能见面。

3.既可接动词-ing形式作宾语也可接不定式作宾语,同时两者意无甚差别的有:like, love, hate, prefer, begin, start, continue, can’t bear, intend, bother, attempt, cease 等。如:

I prefer staying [to stay] indoors on cold winter evenings. 在冬天的夜晚我宁愿呆在家里。

She never ceased complaining [to complain] about prices. 她没完没了地抱怨物价。

但是,当 like, love, hate, prefer would, should 连用时,其后只能接不定式,不能接动名词——因为这样用时,它是表示特定的想法,而非一般性喜好。如:

I’d love to have a word with you. 我想同你说句话。

另外,当begin, cease, startcontinuesee(明白), know(知道), realize(意识到), understand(理解)等状态动词连用时,其后通常要用不定式,不用动名词。如

I soon began to understand what was happening. 我很快开始明白了正在发生什么事。

I am beginning to realize why he acted as he did. 我现在刚刚开始明白他为什么那样做。

4.既可接动词-ing形式作宾语也可接不定式作宾语,但两者意思有较大差别的有:

remember doing sth 记住做过某事

remember to do sth 记住要做某事

forget doing sth 忘记做过某事

forget to do sth 忘记要做某事

regret doing sth 遗憾做过某事

regret to do sth 遗憾要做某事

try doing sth 做某事试试看有何效果

try to do sth 设法或试图要做某事

mean doing sth 意味着做某事

mean to do sth 打算要做某事

can’t help doing sth 禁不住做某事

can’t help to do sth 不能帮助做某事

 

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